Stakeholders are persons, groups, or institutions with interests in a policy, program, or project. Their involvement may be critical for a better and more comprehensive understanding of problems and implementing solutions, they may represent a possible barrier or even a threat, or they may simply have a democratic right to be involved because project decisions will affect them.

The identification of stakeholders establishes the base of engagement and communication strategies that is necessary for achieving greater participation and acceptance of the project. In SEA2LAND project was used a quadruple helix model (QHM). The QHM advocates for a collaborative, interdisciplinary approach amongst the government, industry, academia, and civil society to establish innovative shared value opportunities in an open innovation ecosystem, benefiting all stakeholders involved. In the first step, seven main stakeholder groups were identified: fish and aquaculture industry, agricultural producers, fertilizer producers and sellers, academia and research focused on nutrient recycling, business and financial advisors, policy makers & authorities, and public entities & general public. The identified stakeholder groups are analysed based on their influence on the project and the impact it has on their business activities.

Figure 1: The quadruple helix model (source: Finquelievich, 2016)

Figure 2: The stakeholder groups identified for the SEA2LAND project  

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